Wide variation in the experience of aging is increasingly recognized and models for identifying groups based on how “successfully” individuals are aging have taken many forms. This study used the criteria developed in the MacArthur studies on successful aging to identify subgroups with higher, intermediate, or lower levels of function, and to compare them across a range of other domains. Data were drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Aging (ALSA) in Adelaide, Australia, which is a population–based, bio–psycho–social study of a cohort of 1947 adults aged 70 years or more. Six waves have been conducted, between 1992 and 2000. At waves 1 and 3, an extensive personal interview and self–complete questionnaires were administered and objective physical and psychological functioning assessed. Eight–year mortality was also examined. Results showed risk and protective effects of successful aging for physical functioning and performance, lifestyle, cognition, affect, and personality. The findings confirm that people age with differing degrees of success and those aging most successfully not only live longer, but also experience a better quality of life. The MacArthur model proved useful for this cross–national comparison of determinants and outcomes of “successful” aging.